Cardiac Anatomy

Describe the anatomy of the heart, the pericardium and coronary circulation

Echocardiographic Anatomy

The left ventricle is:

  • Divided into four parts
    From base to apex, in equal thirds along the long axis of the ventricle:
    • Basal
    • Mid-cavity
      Identified by presence of the papillary muscles.
    • Apical
    • Apex
      Tip of the ventricle, beyond where the cavity ends.
  • Each part is divided into segments
    Total of seventeen segments between:
    • 6 basal and mid-cavity segments
      • Inferior
        Mid-cavity contains the postero-medial papillary muscle.
      • Inferoseptal
      • Inferolateral
      • Anterior
      • Antero-septal
      • Antero-lateral
        Mid-cavity contains the anterolateral papillary muscle.
    • 4 apical segments
      • Inferior
      • Anterior
      • Lateral
      • Septal
    • Apical cap

Coronary Supply

The segments of the basal and mid-cavity parts are supplied by all three vessels:

In the apical part, the:

  • LAD
    • Anterior
    • Septal
  • LCx
    • Lateral
  • RCA
    • Inferior

The apical cap is supplied by the LAD.


  1. Alfred Anaesthetic Department Primary Exam Tutorial Series
  2. AHA 17 Segment Model. PMOD.
Last updated 2021-08-23

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