Describe the factors involved in the process of inflammation and the immune response, including innate and acquired immunity
Inflammation is a non-specific response triggered by a pathogen or tissue injury, which aims to limit further tissue damage.
Inflammation is classically characterised by:
- Loss of function
This is a consequence of:
Increases blood flow to area, which increases supply of immune cells and resources for cellular repair.
- Increased vascular permeability
Increases extravasation of protein and immune cells.
- Migration of phagocytes
Remove pathogens and cellular debris.
Process of Inflammation
- Tissue damage
- Trauma causes mechanical disruption of vasculature and mast cell degranulation, causing local inflammation and activation of haemostatic mechanisms
- Infection stimulates degranulation of local macrophages, releasing inflammatory cytokines and triggering mast cell degranulation
- Local inflammatory response
- Histamine causes arteriolar and post-capillary venule dilatation and subsequent extravasation
- Release of chemotactic molecules attracts circulating inflammatory cells
- Systemic inflammatory response
Severe inflammation may lead to cytokines in the systemic circulation, causing:
- Neutrophil recruitment from bone marrow
- Release of acute-phase proteins from liver
- Chambers D, Huang C, Matthews G. Basic Physiology for Anaesthetists. Cambridge University Press. 2015.